Utilizing biosensors as measurement components, these apparatuses can directly measure biochemical properties of molecules without complex separation steps or additional reagents. Electrochemical sensors obtain such properties by measuring electrical signals generated from electrochemical redox reactions of the molecules.
Sensors that can be implanted have the advantage of directly monitoring molecule properties of medical importance, such as concentration of oxygen, glucose and lactose. Such information can be used to improve the accuracy of diagnosis, or the effectiveness of treatment. A subcutaneous microsensor directly placed in the physiological cellular environment where metabolism takes place can provide more accurate and timely information about the body. For example, due to a number of factors, such as diet, temperature, emotional changes, physical activity, age and rate of metabolism, the change of glucose concentration for a diabetic patient is often unpredictable. While discrete measurements cannot provide enough information about dynamic changes, continuous monitoring can provide information that may dramatically improve diagnoses and treatment of diseases.