Diabetes is a chronic disease which develops rapidly, and poses serious health risks. In 1985, there were only 30 million diabetic patients worldwide; less than fifteen years later, in 1998, the population of global diabetics reached 143 million; and in 2006, there were 246 million diabetics. The World Health Organization forecasts that, by 2025, there will be 380 million diabetics worldwide. The medical costs for diabetes in the United States alone exceed 22 billion dollars a year.
In clinical practice, diabetes is divided into 4 types: Types I and II, gestational diabetes mellitus and other special types of diabetes. Incidence of diabetes decrease with the improvement of living standards, but, as yet, there is no radical cure.
Diabetes may cause a series of complex systemic and pathological problems if the condition has been untreated for a long period of time, including hypertension, renal failure, heart disease, blindness, and amputation. The research findings show that strict control of glucose can reduce 76% of the complications related to vision, 56% of those related to the kidney, 60% of neural pathological changes, and 12% of any complication related to Type II diabetes (P=0.03).
In order to effectively understand a patient's glucose level and its characteristic changes, we evaluate the effect of the patient’s glucose according to three different variables: while fasting, after meals, and between meals. The in vivo glucose concentration is a variable changing over time. That is, glucose value varies according to a patient’s daily activities, psychological condition, diet, environment, etc. Changes take place even within a single variable, such as fasting. Therefore, a single survey is simply an inaccurate assessment of a patient’s condition. The general method of measurement is the finger puncture, in which a patient pricks himself or herself to obtain and test blood with a glucose meter. However, the result only represents that particular concentration of glucose, not the comprehensive, or dynamic change of glucose, making it difficult to determine or achieve the most effective method of control.